Last Man Standing® and Hangovers
What is a Hangover?
Even though a hangover is a complex condition that cannot be explained with an all-encompassing explanation, scientists at Last Man Standing® have used their vast knowledge of hangovers and expertise in theoretical and experimental biochemistry, enzymology and nanotechnology to unravel the underpinnings of alcohol-derived hangovers, and have used this knowledge to develop a cutting-edge formulation that actually prevents the onset of a hangover, using all-natural ingredients with no preservatives.
Unlike all other hangover medicines that try to cure a hangover, Last Man Standing®actually prevents the onset of a hangover in a natural, safe and effective manner by providing the body with those essential biomolecules that are depleted during alcohol consumption and its subsequent breakdown; thereby preventing, and not curing, a hangover. There is nothing like it, Last Man Standing simply works. Now you can party on, drink reasonably, and avoid the hangover.... in a safe, natural and effective way!
Alcohol (ethanol)-derived hangovers are characterized by a multitude of symptoms that vary in range and intensity, from individual-to-individual and from one occasion to another. Such symptoms include dehydration, nausea, headache, fatigue, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, sensitivity to light and sound, trouble sleeping, difficulty concentration, poor depth perception and extreme aversions to smell, taste, sight, or the thought of alcohol.
During a typical hangover, a number of factors occur.
For example, alcohol reacts with the stomach lining, causing feelings of nausea. Furthermore, the dehydration aspect, resulting from an increased inclination to urinate, is itself caused by the conversion of ethanol (alcohol) to acetaldehyde- a biochemical which is 10 to 25 more toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic that alcohol itself- and whose build up leads to headaches, fatigue, and dry mouth.
Although most of the symptoms experienced during a hangover are caused by the direct effect of alcohol on the body's systems, there are many other factors that can add to the unpleasantness of a hangover that are not direct effects of the alcohol consumed. These include impurities within the alcohol such as other forms of alcohol, bye-products of the fermentation process, and metal-based flavor enhancers, such as zinc, also initiate or intensify hangovers. Preservatives within alcohol may also have the same effect. The more impurities or preservatices present within an alcoholic beverage, the worse a hangover is likely to be.
And at the end of it all , all alcohol consumed is eventually broken down by the liver, in a process that concomitantly impairs the liver's ability to supply glucose to tissues and other organs, in particular to the brain, and in addition to a build up of glutarate within the brain.
This imbalance causes additional fatigue, weakness, moodiness and decreased attention. Most hangovers begin several hours after drinking and may last as long as a couple of days. However, and typically so a hangover begins when the users blood alcohol level begins to fall and reaches a maximum when the bold alcohol level reaches zero.
So, while drinking an alcoholic beverage that contains impurities or preservatives it can cause the onset of a hangover, even if you only have one drink, what you drink and how much you drink still matters. Drinking in excess is more likely to cause a hangver than drinking moderately. People with certain ethnic dispositions (e.g., East Asians) are also genetically configured to have more, and more intense, hangovers than others.
From a medical point of view, hangovers are poorly understood - there is currently no empirically proven mechanism for its prevention and no compelling evidence exists to suggest that any conventional or complementary intervention is effective for prevention or treating alcohol hangovers. At present, the general consensus within the medical community is that the most effective way to avoid the symptoms of alcohol induced hangovers is to avoid drinking. If or when alcohol is consumed, the offered options are either to (i) reduce the amount of alcohol consumed, or(ii) wait for the body to breakdown ingested alcohol through enzymes present within the liver.
This lack of a medically-certifiable cure has lead to the market proliferation of a large number of hangover remedies based on folk medicine, placebo-effect success and simply quackery. And some of them are lethal. For example the use of acetaminophen (Tylenol) as a hangover remedy can potentially lead to serious lever damage.